Aims and Objectives
Two key areas that need to be demonstrated to gain public acceptance of CO2 pipelines are that such mode of transport is safe, and its environmental impact is limited. Key to this is the prior knowledge of the time-dependent release rate, the corresponding fluid phase and the dispersion behaviour of escaping CO2. Such information is pivotal in governing all the hazards associated with the failure of CO2 pipelines, including emergency response planning and determining minimum safe distances to populated areas.
In this study we will undertake a fundamentally new approach to understanding the hazards presented by CO2 pipelines based on the development of novel mathematical and computational techniques, challenging chemical engineering concepts and innovative experimentation to:
- Define optimum level of impurities in the CO2 stream based on safety, environmental and economic analysis;
- Develop a computationally efficient multi-phase heterogeneous outflow model for the accurate prediction of the time variant release rate and the physical state of escaping CO2 following pipeline failure, based on a reliable equation of state for CO2 and CO2 mixtures;
- Develop multi-state dispersion models for predicting the subsequent concentration of the released CO2 as a function of time and distance from the release, both in terms of a detailed near- and far-field modelling capability;
- Conduct small and large scale experimental validations of the models developed;
- Provide a detailed understanding of the hazards presented by CO2 releases through experimentation and, using the data generated, validate the outflow and dispersion models developed;
- Embody the understanding and predictive capabilities developed in decision support tools, assessing and improving existing safety, risk assessment methods, tools for CO2 pipeline application, and producing refined best practice guidelines;
- Demonstrate the usefulness of the tools developed through their application to possible CO2 pipeline designs.